Subsections

Introduction

EusLisp is an integrated programming system for the research on intelligent robots based on Common Lisp and Object-Oriented programming. The principal subjects in the field of robotics research are sensory data processing, visual environment recognition, collision avoiding motion planning, and task planning. In either problem, three dimensional shape models of robots and environment play crucial roles. A motivation to the development of EusLisp was a demand for an extensible solid modeler that can easily be made use of from higher level symbolic processing system. Investigations into traditional solid modelers proved that the vital requirement for their implementation language was the list processing capability to represent and manage topology among model components. Numerical computation power was also important, but locality of geometric computation suggested the provision of vector/matrix functions as built-ins would greatly ease programming.

Thus the primary decision to build a solid modeler in a Lisp equipped with a geometric computation package was obtained. Although a solid modeler provides facilities to define shapes of 3D objects, to simulate their behaviors, and to display them graphically, its applications are limited until it is incorporated in robot modules mentioned above. These modules also need to be tightly interconnected to achieve fully integrated robot systems. EusLisp sought for the framework of this integration in object-oriented programming (OOP). While OOP promotes modular programming, it facilitates incremental extension of existing functions by using inheritance of classes. In fact, components in the solid modeler, such as bodies, faces, and edges, can orderly be inplemented by extending one of the most basic class coordinates. These components may have further subclasses to provide individual functions for particular robot applications.

Based upon these considerations, EusLisp has been developped as an object-oriented Lisp which implements an extensible solid modeler[]. Other features include intertask communication needed for the cooperative task coordination, graphics facilities on X-window for visual user interface, and foreign language interface to support mixed language programming.

In the implementation of the language, two performance-effective techniques were invented in type discrimination and memory management [5,,]. The new type discrimination method guarantees constant-time discrimination between types in tree structured hiearchy without regard to the depth of trees. Heap memory is managed in Fibonacci buddy method, which improves memory efficiency without sacrificing runtime or garbage-collection performance.

This reference manual describes EusLisp version 7.27 in two parts, EusLisp Basics and EusLisp Extensions. The first part describes Common Lisp features and object-oriented programming. Since a number of literatures are available on both topics, the first part is rather indifferent except EusLisp's specific features as described in Interprocess Communication and Network, Toplevel Interaction, Disk Save, etc. Beginners of EusLisp are advised to get familiar with Common Lisp and object oriented programming in other ways [2,4]. The second part deals with features more related with robot applications, such as Geometric Modelling, Image Processing, Manipulator Model and so on. Unfortunately, the descriptions in this part may become incomplete or inaccurate because of EusLisp's rapid evolution. The update information is available via euslisp mailing list as mentioned in section 1.6.

EusLisp's Object-Oriented Programming

Unlike other Lisp-based object-oriented programming languages like CLOS [4], EusLisp is a Lisp system built on the basis of object-orientation. In the former approach, Lisp is used as an implementation language for the object-oriented programming, and there is apparent distinction between system defined objects and user defined objects, since system data types do not have corresponding classes. On the other hand, every data structure in EusLisp except number is represented by an object, and there is no inherent difference between built-in data types, such as cons and symbols, and user defined classes. This implies that even the system built-in data types can be extended (inherited) by user-defined classes. Also, when a user defines his own class as a subclass of a built-in class, he can use built-in methods and functions for the new class, and the amount of description for a new program can be reduced. For example, you may extend the cons class to have extra field other than car and cdr to define queues, trees, stacks, etc. Even for these instances, built-in functions for built-in cons are also applicable without any loss of efficiency, since those functions recognize type hierarchy in a constant time. Thus, EusLisp makes all the system built-in facilities open to programmers in the form of extensible data types. This uniformity is also beneficial to the implementation of EusLisp, because, after defining a few kernel functions such as defclass, send, and instantiate, in the implementation language, most of house-keeping functions to access the internal structure of built-in data types can be coded in EusLisp itself. This has much improved the reliability and maintainability of EusLisp.

Features

object-oriented programming
EusLisp provides single-inheritance Object-Oriented programming. All data types except numbers are represented by objects whose behaviors are defined in their classes.
Common Lisp
EusLisp follows the specifications of Common Lisp described in [2] and [3] as long as they are consistent with EusLisp's goal and object-orientation. See next subsection for incompatibilities.
compiler
EusLisp's compiler can boost the execution 5 to 30 times as fast as the interpreted execution. The compiler keeps the same semantics as the interpreter.
memory management
Fibonacci buddy method, which is memory efficient, GC efficient, and robust, is used for the memory management. EusLisp can run on machines with relatively modest amount of memory. Users are free from the optimization of page allocation for each type of data.
geometric primitives
Since numbers are always represented as immediate data, no garbage is generated by numeric computation. A number of geometric functions for arbitrary-sized vectors and matrices are provided as built-in functions.
geometric modeler
Solid models can be defined from primitive bodies using CSG set operations. Mass properties, interference checking, contact detection, and so on, are available.
graphics
Hidden-line eliminated drawing and hidden-surface eliminated rendering are available. Postscript output to idraw can be generated.
image processing
Edge based image processing facility is provided.
manipulator model
6 D.O.F.s robot manipulator can easily be modeled.
Xwindow interface
Three levels of Xwindow interface, the Xlib foreign functions, the Xlib classes and the original XToolKit classes are provided.
foreign-language interface
Functions written in C or other languages can be linked into EusLisp. Bidirectional call between EusLisp and other language are supported. Functions in libraries like LINPACK become available through this interface. Call-back functions in X toolkits can be defined in Lisp.
unix binding
Most of unix system calls and unix library functions are assorted as Lisp functions. Signal handling and asynchronous I/O are also possible.
multithread
multithread programming, which enables multiple contexts sharing global data, is available on Solaris 2 operating system. Multithread facilitates asynchronous programming and improves real-time response[6,]. If EusLisp runs on multi-processor machines, it can utilize parallel processors' higher computating power.

Compatibility with Common Lisp

Common Lisp has become the well-documented and widely-available standard Lisp [2,3]. Although EusLisp has introduced lots of Common Lisp features such as variable scoping rules, packages, sequences, generalized variables, blocks, structures, keyword parameters, etc., incompatibilities still remain. Here is a list of missing features:

  1. multiple values: multiple-value-call,multiple-value-prog1, etc.
  2. some of data types: complex number, bignum, ratio, character and deftype
  3. some of special forms: progv, compiler-let,macrolet

Following features are incomplete:

  1. closure - only valid for dynamic extent
  2. declare,proclaim - inline and ignore are unrecognized

Revision History

1986
The first version of EusLisp ran on Unix-System5/Ustation-E20. Fibonacci buddy memory management, simple compiler generating M68020 assembly code, and vector/matrix functions were tested.
1987
The new fast type checking method is implemented. The foreign language interface and the SunView interface were incorporated.
1988
The compiler was changed to generate C programs as intermediate code. Since the compiler became processor independent, EusLisp was ported on Ultrix/VAX8800 and on SunOS3.5/Sun3 and /Sun4 . IPC facility using socket streams was added. The solid modeler was implemented. Lots of Common Lisp features such as keyword parameters, labeled print format to handle recursive data objects, generic sequence functions, readtables, tagbody, go, flet, and labels special forms, etc., were added.
1989
The Xlib interface was introduced. % read macro to read C-like mathematical expressions was made. manipulator class is defined.
1990
The XView interface was written by M.Inaba. Ray tracer was written. Solid modeler was modified to keep CSG operation history. Asynchronous I/O was added.
1991
The motion constraint program was written by H.Hirukawa. Ported to DEC station. Coordinates class changed to handle both 2D and 3D coordinate systems. Body composition functions were enhanced to handle contacting objects. CSG operation for contacting objects. The package system became compatible with Common Lisp.
1992
Face+ and face* for union and intersection of two coplanar faces were added. Image processing facility was added. The first completed reference manual was printed and delivered.
1993
EusLisp was stable.
1994
Ported to Solaris 2. Multi-context implementation using Solaris's multithread facility. XToolKit is built. Multi robot simulator, MARS was written by Dr. Kuniyoshi. EusLisp organized session at RSJ 94, in Fukuoka.
1995
The second version of the reference manual is published.
2010
Version 9.00 is releaced, The licence is changed to BSD.
2011
Add Darwin OS Support, Add model files.
2013
Add Cygwin 64 Bit support, expand MXSTACK from 65536 to 8388608, KEYWORDPARAMETERLIMIT from 32 to 128.
2014
Use UTF-8 for documents, Version 9.10 is releaced.
2015
more error check on min/max, support arbitrary length for vplus, more quiet for non-ttyp mode, Version 9.11 is releaced.
2015
Version 9.12 is released, support ARM Version 9.13 is released, support class documentation Version 9.14 is released, fix assert API. Now message is optional (defmacro assert (pred &optional message) Version 9.15 is released, fix char comparison function (previous version retuns opossite result), support multiple argument at function /=, add url encode feature (escape-url function), support microsecond add/subtract in interval-time class Version 9.16 is released, added make-random-state, fixed bug in lib/llib/unittest.l
2016
Version 9.17 is released, add trace option in (init-unit-test), enable to read #f(nan inf).fix models/doc. Version 9.18 is released, support gcc-5. Version 9.20 is released, support OSX (gluTessCallback, glGenTexturesEXT), add GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT constants, fix color-image class, (it uses RGB not BGR). Version 9.21 is released, fix :trim of hashtab class, enable to compile filename containing -, do not raise error when not found cygpq.dll (Cygwin) Version 9.22 is released, add :color option to :draw-box, :draw-polyline, :draw-star, with-output-to-string returns color instead of nil, print call stack on error, check if classof is called with pointer, pass symbol pointer to funcall in apply, add error check of butlast and append. Version 9.23 is released, support ARM64, udpate models.

Installation

The installation procedure is described in README. The installation directory, which is assumed to be "/usr/local/eus/", should be set to the global variable *eusdir*, since this location is referenced by load and the compiler.

Subdirectories in *eusdir* are described in table 1. Among these, c/, l/, comp/, geo/, clib/, and xwindow contain essential files to make eus and eusx. Others are optional libraries, demonstration programs and contributions from users.


Table 1: Directories in *eusdir*
FILES this document
README a brief guide to lisence, installation and sample run
VERSION EUSLisp version number
bin executables (eus, euscomp and eusx)
c/ EusLisp kernel written in C
l/ kernel functions written in EusLisp
comp/ EusLisp compiler written in EusLisp
clib/ library functions written in C
doc/ documentation (latex and jlatex sources and memos)
geo/ geometric and graphic programs
lib/ shared libraries (.so) and start-up files
llib/ Lisp library
llib2/ secondary Lisp library developed at UTYO
xwindow/ X11 interface
makefile@ symbolic link to one of makefile.sun[34]os[34],.vax, etc.
pprolog/ tiny prolog interpreter
xview/ xview tool kit interface
tool/
vxworks/ interface with VxWorks real-time OS
robot/ robot models and simulators
vision/ image processing programs
contact/ motion constraint solver by H.Hirukawa [1,,]
demo/ demonstrative programs
bench/ benchmark programs



License

EusLisp is distributed under the following BSD License.

Copyright (c) 1984-2001, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
 and Technology (AIST)
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification,
are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

* Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
  this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
  this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
  and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
  and Technology (AIST) nor the names of its contributors may be used to 
  endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior 
  written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" 
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, 
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE 
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE 
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR 
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE 
GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) 
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT 
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT 
OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Until version 8.25, Euslisp is distributed under following licence.

EusLisp can be obtained with its source code via ftp from etlport.etl.go.jp (192.31.197.99). Those who use EusLisp must observe following articles and submit a copy of license agreement (doc/LICENCE) to the author.


Toshihiro MATSUI   

Intelligent Systems Division,
Electrotechnical Laboratory
1-1-4 Umezono,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058568, JAPAN. email: matsui@etl.go.jp

Users are registered in the euslisp mailing list (euslisp@etl.go.jp), where information for Q&A, bug fix, and upgrade information is circulated. This information has been accumulated in *eusdir*/doc/mails.

  1. The copyright of EusLisp belongs to the author (Toshihiro Matsui) and Electrotechnical Laboratory. The user must get agreement of use from the author.
  2. Licensee may use EusLisp for any purpose other than military purpose.
  3. EusLisp can be obtained freely from Elecrotechnical Laboratory via ftp.
  4. EusLisp may be copied or sold as long as articles described here are observed. When it is sold, the seller must inform the customers that the original EusLisp is free.
  5. When licensees publicize their researches or studies which used EusLisp, the use of EusLisp must be cited with appropriate bibliography.
  6. Licensees may add changes to the source code of EusLisp. The resulted program is still EusLisp as long as the change does not exceed 50% of codes, and these articles must be observed for unchanged part.
  7. The copyright of programs developped in EusLisp belongs to the developper. However, he cannot extend his copyright over the main body of EusLisp.
  8. Neither the author nor ETL provides warranty.

Demonstrations

Demonstration programs are found in demo subdirectory. cd to *eusdir* and run eusx.
Robot Animation
Load demo/animdemo.l from eusx. Smooth animation of eta3 manipulator will be shown after a precomputation of approximately 20 minutes.
Ray-Tracing
If you have 8-bit pseudo color display, a ray-tracing image can be generated by loading demo/renderdemo.l. Make sure geo/render.l has already been compiled.
Edge Vision
Loading demo/edgedemo.l, a sample gray-scale image is displayed. You give parameters for choosing the gradient operator and edge thresholds. Edges are found in a few second and overlayed on the original image.

Figure 1: Animation of Collision Avoidance Path Planning
\includegraphics[width=150mm]{fig/eta3colavo.ps}

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